'Queen of Soul' Franklin Dies at 76 08/17 06:19
NEW YORK (AP) -- Aretha Franklin, the undisputed "Queen of Soul" who sang
with matchless style on such classics as "Think," ''I Say a Little Prayer" and
her signature song, "Respect," and stood as a cultural icon around the globe,
has died from pancreatic cancer. She was 76.
Publicist Gwendolyn Quinn told The Associated Press through a family
statement that Franklin died Thursday at 9:50 a.m. at her home in Detroit.
A professional singer and pianist by her late teens, a superstar by her
mid-20s, Franklin had long ago settled any arguments over who was the greatest
popular vocalist of her time. Her gifts, natural and acquired, were a
multi-octave mezzo-soprano, gospel passion and training worthy of a preacher's
daughter, taste sophisticated and eccentric, and the courage to channel private
pain into liberating song.
She recorded hundreds of tracks and had dozens of hits over the span of a
half century, including 20 that reached No. 1 on the R&B charts. But her
reputation was defined by an extraordinary run of top 10 smashes in the late
1960s, from the morning-after bliss of "(You Make Me Feel Like) A Natural
Woman," to the wised-up "Chain of Fools" to her unstoppable call for "Respect."
The music industry couldn't honor her enough. Franklin won 18 Grammy awards.
In 1987, she became the first woman inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of
Fellow singers bowed to her eminence and political and civic leaders treated
her as a peer. The Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. was a longtime friend, and she
sang at the dedication of King's memorial, in 2011. She performed at the
inaugurations of Presidents Bill Clinton and Jimmy Carter, and at the funeral
for civil rights pioneer Rosa Parks. Clinton gave Franklin the National Medal
of Arts. President George W. Bush awarded her the Presidential Medal of
Freedom, the nation's highest civilian honor, in 2005.
Franklin's best-known appearance with a president was in January 2009, when
she sang "My Country 'tis of Thee" at Barack Obama's inauguration. She wore a
gray felt hat with a huge, Swarovski rhinestone-bordered bow that became an
Internet sensation and even had its own website.
Franklin endured the exhausting grind of celebrity and personal troubles
dating back to childhood. She was married from 1961 to 1969 to her manager, Ted
White, and their battles are widely believed to have inspired her performances
on several songs, including "(Sweet Sweet Baby) Since You've Been Gone,"
''Think" and her heartbreaking ballad of despair, "Ain't No Way." The mother of
two sons by age 16 (she later had two more), she was often in turmoil as she
struggled with her weight, family problems and financial predicaments. Her best
known producer, Jerry Wexler, nicknamed her "Our Lady of Mysterious Sorrows."
Despite growing up in Detroit, and having Smokey Robinson as a childhood
friend, Franklin never recorded for Motown Records; stints with Columbia and
Arista were sandwiched around her prime years with Atlantic Records. But it was
at Detroit's New Bethel Baptist Church, where her father was pastor, that
Franklin learned the gospel fundamentals that would make her a soul institution.
Aretha Louise Franklin was born March 25, 1942, in Memphis, Tennessee. The
Rev. C.L. Franklin soon moved his family to Buffalo, New York, then to Detroit.
C.L. Franklin was among the most prominent Baptist ministers of his time. Music
was the family business and performers from Sam Cooke to Lou Rawls were guests
at the Franklin house. In the living room, young Aretha awed Robinson and other
friends with her playing on the grand piano.
Franklin was in her early teens when she began touring with her father, and
she released a gospel album in 1956 through J-V-B Records. Four years later,
she signed with Columbia Records producer John Hammond, who called Franklin the
most exciting singer he had heard since a vocalist he promoted decades earlier,
Billie Holiday. Franklin knew Motown founder Berry Gordy Jr. and considered
joining his label, but decided it was just a local company at the time.
Franklin recorded several albums for Columbia Records over the next six
years. She had a handful of minor hits, including "Rock-A-Bye Your Baby With a
Dixie Melody" and "Runnin' Out of Fools," but never quite caught on as the
label tried to fit into her a variety of styles, from jazz and show songs to
such pop numbers as "Mockingbird." Franklin jumped to Atlantic Records when her
contract ran out, in 1966.
"But the years at Columbia also taught her several important things," critic
Russell Gersten later wrote. "She worked hard at controlling and modulating her
phrasing, giving her a discipline that most other soul singers lacked. She also
developed a versatility with mainstream music that gave her later albums a
breadth that was lacking on Motown LPs from the same period.
"Most important, she learned what she didn't like: to do what she was told
At Atlantic, Wexler teamed her with veteran R&B musicians from FAME Studios
in Muscle Shoals, and the result was a tougher, soulful sound, with
call-and-response vocals and Franklin's gospel-style piano, which anchored "I
Say a Little Prayer," ''Natural Woman" and others.
Of Franklin's dozens of hits, none was linked more firmly to her than the
funky, horn-led march "Respect" and its spelled out demand for "R-E-S-P-E-C-T."
Writing in Rolling Stone magazine in 2004, Wexler said: "It was an appeal
for dignity combined with a blatant lubricity. There are songs that are a call
to action. There are love songs. There are sex songs. But it's hard to think of
another song where all those elements are combined."
Franklin had decided she wanted to "embellish" the R&B song written by Otis
Redding, whose version had been a modest hit in 1965.
"When she walked into the studio, it was already worked out in her head,"
the producer wrote. "Otis came up to my office right before 'Respect' was
released, and I played him the tape. He said, 'She done took my song.' He said
it benignly and ruefully. He knew the identity of the song was slipping away
from him to her."
In a 2004 interview with the St. Petersburg (Fla.) Times, Franklin was asked
whether she sensed in the '60s that she was helping change popular music.
"Somewhat, certainly with 'Respect,' that was a battle cry for freedom and
many people of many ethnicities took pride in that word," she answered. "It was
meaningful to all of us."